Dual Language Educational Research

“School within a school”: Examining implementation barriers in a Spanish/English transitional bilingual education program

Christina Passos DeNicolo; Pages 91-106 | Published online: 19 May 2016. Bilingual Research Journal: The Journal of the National Association for Bilingual Education.

Additive forms of bilingual education, in which students continue to receive instruction in their primary or home language as they develop proficiency in English, have been shown to be more effective for academic achievement than all-English instruction”

TWI programs differ from other types of programs due to the goal of bilingualism and biliteracy both for students who enter as emergent bilinguals as well as for English-speaking students.

Spanish-speaking students benefited from the integrated instruction in English when they already knew the content in Spanish, which highlighted the need for instructional sequencing across the bilingual and general education classrooms.

Bilingual Two-Way Immersion Programs Benefit Academic Achievement

Viorica Marian, Anthony Shook & Scott R. Schroeder; Pages 167-186 | Published online: 05 Sep 2013

Students in two-way immersion programs outperformed students in transitional bilingual education programs on both English and Spanish reading tests.

****While both the majority-language and minority-language TWI students exhibited reading and math advantages over their non-TWI peers, these benefits manifested at different times in the two groups. The benefits were observed earlier in the majority-language TWI students and later in the minority-language TWI students. Previous work suggests that it can take four to seven years for minority-language speakers to develop enough proficiency for successful academic performance (e.g., Hakuta, Butler, & Witt, 2000).

Bilingual children have been shown to exhibit increased executive functioning skills (Bialystok & Martin, 2004; Carlson & Meltzoff, 2008), which correlate with math performance

Should Bilingual Children Learn Reading in Two Languages at the Same Time or in Sequence?

Melody S. Berens, Ioulia Kovelman& Laura-Ann PetittoPages 35-60 | Published online: 24 May 2013

{This study looks deeply at what SPECIFIC tasks children in the different models of TWI do best on… 50:50 or 90:10-- if you want more details, let me know)

Bilinguals in 50:50 programs performed better than bilinguals in 90:10 programs on English Irregular Words and Passage Comprehension tasks, suggesting language and reading facilitation for underlying grammatical class and linguistic structure analyses.

We found a surprising reading advantage in bilingual children learning in a dual-language learning context (both 50:50 and 90:10) as compared to monolingual children learning in a single-language learning context.

50:50 dual-language learning context, with key expansions, may be the most optimal learning path if the goal is to promote comparable and comparably high reading and language mastery in two languages.

****Based on our findings, we propose that the 50:50 dual-language learning, in combination with phonological training in the early school years, may provide the most optimal and enduring type of bilingual language learning****

The Promise of Two-Language Education

Educational Leadership Journal, February 2016 | Volume 73 | Number 5. Helping ELLs Excel Pages 10-17. 12-year study: English immersion, bilingual, dual-immersion

Research in cognitive science – students who first acquire a strong foundation in one language are better equipped to learn a second language (due to core underlying structures)

ELLs will learn English more effectively if they first develop lit skills in home language

Reduced discrimination, improved self-esteem, stronger cross-group relationships, economic benefits, cognitive health benefits

By middle school, kids in a dual-language catch up and perform as well as or better than their peers in English immersion

Dual Language Education: A Promising 50–50 Model

Leo Gómez, David Freeman & Yvonne Freeman; Pages 145-164 | Published online: 22 Nov 2010

“Researchers in literacy, bilingualism, and second language acquisition; teachers, teachers educators; and policymakers have taken an interest in these programs because they promot success for both language-majority and language-minority students” (146)

“The programs have helped build crosscultural school communities and crosscultural friendships among students and parents” (146)

Language, Power, and Pedagogy: Bilingual Children in The Crossfire.

Cummins, Jim (2004)

Skills already acquired in a first language can be ultimately transferred to a second language, this transfer evidently does not occur until a relatively high level of proficiency is acquired. (p. 64)

Education English Learners: Language Diversity in the Classroom

Crawford, James (2004)

“Four decades of experience in the classroom, refinements in curriculum and methodology, and gains in student achievement have made believers out of countless parents, teachers, and school board members.” (p. 158)

Why Bilinguals Are Smarter


Being bilingual, it turns out, makes you smarter. It can have a profound effect on your brain, improving cognitive skills not related to language and even shielding against dementia in old age.

The collective evidence from a number of such studies suggests that the bilingual experience improves the brain’s so-called executive function — a command system that directs the attention processes that we use for planning, solving problems and performing various other mentally demanding tasks. These processes include ignoring distractions to stay focused, switching attention willfully from one thing to another and holding information in mind — like remembering a sequence of directions while driving.

The Amazing Benefits of Being Bilingual

BBC. By Gaia Vince From Mosaic, 12 August 2016

A superior ability to concentrate, solve problems and focus, better mental flexibility and multitasking skills are, of course, valuable in everyday life. But perhaps the most exciting benefit of bilingualism occurs in ageing, when executive function typically declines: bilingualism seems to protect against dementia.

Contact Information

Dos Caminos Liaison

Dual Language Program Liaison

Powered by Finalsite